06 Appendix A – Notes

Appendix A - Notes



1. “Nearly 385 million children living in extreme poverty, says joint World Bank Group – UNICEF study,” UNICEF, https://www.unicef.org/media/media_92856. html (accessed March 7, 2018).
2. The extreme poverty line was set in 1990, then adjusted for inflation. It’s deter- mined by the International Comparison Program (http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/poverty/brief/global-poverty-line-faq).
3. “Poverty Overview,” The World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/pov-erty/overview (accessed January 19, 2018).
4. “Poverty Overview,” The World Bank.
5. “World Bank Forecasts Global Poverty to Fall Below 10% for First Time; Major
Hurdles Remain in Goal to End Poverty by 2030,” The World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2015/10/04/world-bank-forecasts-global-poverty-to-fall-below-10-for-first-time-major-hurdles-remain-in-goal-to-end-poverty-by-2030 (accessed January 19, 2018).
6. “The World Factbook,” Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2046.html (accessed January 19, 2018).
7. “Does polio still exist?” World Health Organization, http://www.who.int/features/qa/07/en/ (accessed January 19, 2018).
8. Katherine Kornei, “Here are some of the world’s worst cities for air quality,”
Science Magazine, May 21, 2017, http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/03/here-are-some-world-s-worst-cities-air-quality (accessed January 19, 2018).
9. “Corruption Perceptions Index 2016,” Transparency International, January 25, 2017, https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_in-
dex_2016#table (accessed January 19, 2018).
10. “Poverty Reduction Begins with Children,” UNICEF, March 2000, http://www.albacharia.ma/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/30755/0512Poverty%20%20Reduction%20Begins%20with%20Children%20(2000).pdf?sequence=1 (ac- cessed January 19, 2018).
11. Dave Umhoefer, “U.S. Rep. Ron Kind says that ‘thanks to Medicare,’ 75% few- er seniors are in poverty, and most have health coverage,” Politifact, August 25, 2011, http://www.politifact.com/wisconsin/statements/2011/aug/25/ron-kind/us-rep-ron-kind-says-thanks-medicare-75-fewer-seni/ (accessed January 19, 2018).
12. “Norman Borlaug – Biographical,” Nobelprize.org, https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1970/borlaug-bio.html (accessed January 19, 2018).
13. James Feyrer, Dimitra Politi and David N. Weil, “The Cognitive Effects of Micronutrient Deficiency: Evidence from Salt Iodization in the United States,” Journal of the European Economic Association Volume 15.2, July 2013, p. 355–387.
14. “Business and International Development: Opportunities, Responsibilities and Expectations,” Edelman, January 2005, https://sites.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/publications/report_5_edelman_survey.pdf (accessed January 19, 2018).
15. “Famine menaces 20m people in Africa and Yemen,” The Economist, May 30, 2017, https://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21719827-war-not-drought-reason-people-are-starving-famine-menaces-20m-people (accessed January 19, 2018).
16. “Unlocking the Water Potential of Africa,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2003, http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4525e/y4525e04.htm (accessed January 19, 2018.)
17. “Poverty and Development,” Transparency International, https://www.transpar- ency.org/topic/detail/poverty_and_development (accessed January 19, 2018).
18. “IMF Survey: IMF Study Explores How to Better Manage Government Pay and Employment,” International Monetary Fund, June 9, 2016, https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2015/09/28/04/53/sores060916a (accessed January 19, 2018).
19. Bianca DiJulio, “Data Note: Americans’ Views On The U.S. Role In Global Health,” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, January 23, 2015, https://www.kff.org/global-health-policy/poll-finding/data-note-americans-views-on-the-u-s-role-in-global-health/ (accessed January 19, 2018).
20. “The Issue,” 1,000 Days, http://thousanddays.org/the-issue/ (accessed January 19, 2018).
21. “Under-Five Mortality,” UNICEF, https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-survival/under-five-mortality/ (accessed January 19, 2018).
22. “The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, http://www.fao.org/state-of-food-security-nutrition/en/ (accessed January 19, 2018).
23. “Investing in All God’s Children,” Faith for International Assistance, http://www.faithforinternationalassistance.org/investing-in-all-gods-children.html (accessed January 19, 2018).
24. Additional sources recommended by Dr. Brewster include The Child in South Asia by David P. Haxton (UNICEF, 1988) and “World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children” (UNICEF, 1990.)
25. The Generosity Gap (Ventura, CA: Barna Group, 2017).
26. If 116,926,305 U.S. households (as estimated by the United States Census Bureau:
https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtm-l?src=bkmk) gave the average reported donation from Barna’s study ($434), total U.S. donations would be $50,746,016,370. In other words, child poverty donations ought to be a $51 billion industry if people are reporting correctly and the survey is representative. This might be a reasonable estimation, considering the many causes covered by that category, as indicated here: https://www.charitynavigator. org/index.cfm?bay=content.view&cpid=42.
27. “Americans Soften on Immigration in 2017,” Barna Group, September 19, 2017, https://www.barna.com/research/americans-soften-immigration-2017/ (accessed March 7, 2018).
28. “Volunteering in the United States, 2015,” Bureau of Labor Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/news.release/volun.nr0.htm (accessed January 19, 2018).
29. “Volunteering in the United States, 2015,” Bureau of Labor Statistics.
30. The Generosity Gap.
31. The Generosity Gap.
32. “Wealth, Asset Ownership, & Debt of Households Detailed Tables: 2013,” United
States Census Bureau, https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2013/demo/wealth/
wealth-asset-ownership.html (accessed January 19, 2018).
33. Catherine Rampell, “Marriage Is for Rich People,” The New York Times, February
6, 2012, https://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/06/marriage-is-for-rich-
people/ (accessed January 19, 2018).
34. “Wealth, Asset Ownership, & Debt of Households Detailed Tables: 2013,” United
States Census Bureau.
35. Pam Fessler, “Study Reveals the Geography of Charitable Giving,” NPR, August
20, 2012, http://www.npr.org/2012/08/20/158947667/study-reveals-the-geography-of-charitable-giving (accessed January 19, 2018).
36. Ken Stern, “Why the Rich Don’t Give,” The Atlantic, April 2013, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/04/why-the-rich-dont-give/309254/
(accessed January 19, 2018).
37. See “Reader’s Digest Trust Poll: The 100 Most Trusted People in America (https://www.rd.com/culture/readers-digest-trust-poll-the-100-most-trusted-people-in-america/) and “Who Makes the List of Trustworthiness?” (http://www.npr.org/2015/02/14/386227424/who-makes-the-list-of-trustworthiness).
38. “What the Bible Says About Children, Poverty and Compassion,” Compassion International, https://www.compassion.com/poverty/what-the-bible-says-chil-dren-poverty.htm (accessed January 19, 2018).
39. Michael Sanders and Francesca Tamma, “The Science Behind Why People Give Money to Charity,” The Guardian, March 23, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/voluntary-sector-network/2015/mar/23/the-science-behind-why-people-give-money-to-charity (accessed January 19, 2018).
40. Philip E. Tetlock, Orie V. Kristel, S. Beth Elson, Melanie C. Green and Jennifer S. Lerner, “The psychology of the unthinkable: Taboo trade-offs, forbidden base rates, and heretical counterfactuals,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Volume 78.5, 2000, p. 853–870.
41. “SMART Goals: How to Make Your Goals Achievable,” Mind Tools, https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/smart-goals.htm (accessed January 19, 2018).
42. “The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015,” United Nations, http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20
(July%201).pdf (accessed January 19, 2018).
43. “Poverty – United Nations Sustainable Development Goals,” United Nations,
http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/poverty/ (accessed January 19,
44. S. Turkay, “Setting Goals: Who, Why, How?” manuscript, 2014, https://hilt.harvard.edu/files/hilt/files/settinggoals.pdf (accessed January 19, 2018).
45. Karen E. Jenni and George Loewenstein, “Explaining the “identifiable victim ef- fect,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty Volume 14, 1997, p. 235–257.
46. Deborah A. Small and George Loewenstein, “Helping a Victim or Helping the Victim: Altruism and Identifiability,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty Volume 26, 2003, p. 5–16.
47. Deborah A. Small, George Loewenstein and Paul Slovic, “Can Insight Breed Callousness? The Impact of Learning about the Identifiable Victim Effect on Sympathy,” Conference on Economics and Psychology, Toulouse, France, June 20–21, 2005.
48. Jennifer S. Lerner, Deborah A. Small and George Loewenstein, “Heart Strings and Purse Strings: Carryover Effects of Emotions on Economic Decisions,” Psychological Science Volume 15.5, May 15, 2004, 9. 337–341.
49. Thomas C. Schelling, “The Life You Save May Be Your Own,” in Samuel B. Chase ed. Problems in Public Expenditure Analysis: Studies of Government Finance (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1968).
50. Derek D. Rucker and Richard E. Petty, “Emotion Specificity and Consumer Behavior: Anger, Sadness, and Preference for Activity,” Motivation and Emotion, Volume 28.1, March 2004, p. 3–21.
51. Shane Frederick and George Loewenstein, “Hedonic Adaptation,” in Daniel Kahneman, Edward Diener and Nortbert Schwarz,Well-Being: Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2003).
52. The State of Pastors (Ventura, CA: Barna Group, 2017).
53. The Generosity Gap.
54. Jeffrey Brown, “World Bank Announces Goal to End Extreme Poverty by 2030,”
PBS, April 18, 2013, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/world-bank-announces-goal-to-end-extreme-poverty-by-2030 (accessed January 19, 2018).
55. Maria K. Pavlova and Rainer K. Silbereisen, “Dispositional optimism fos- ters opportunity-congruent coping with occupational uncertainty,” Journal of
Personality Volume 81.1, February 2013, p. 76–86.
56. Jaihyun Park and Mahzarin Banaji, “Mood and heuristics: The influence of happy
and sad states on sensitivity and bias in stereotyping,” Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology Volume 78, July 2000, p. 1005–1023.
57. Lalin Anik, Lara B. Aknin, Michael I. Norton and Elizabeth W. Dunn, “Feeling
Good About Giving: The Benefits (and Costs) of Self-Interested Charitable Behavior,” Harvard Business School Marketing Unit Working Paper No. 10-012, August 6, 2009.
58. Stephen G. Post, “Altruism, happiness, and health: it’s good to be good,” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine Volume 12.2, June 2005, p. 66–77.

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